Plot hole: Trelane says he studied Earth images that travelled to him at light speed, and earlier they establish Gothos is 900 years from Earth. But Trelane references Napoleon and Hamilton, who weren't around until 1800 or so. That would put this episode in 2700, but the original Trek episodes are set in the 2200's.
Plot hole: Spock has absolutely no way to know, yet, that the horta only secretes her corrosive substance when tunneling: he hasn't had time to examine her or to do more than determine that she does indeed secrete a substance that cuts the tunnels. So he should at the very least scan the piece of her that falls off before he picks it up with his bare hands. Major lapse of logic, which given his character goes beyond a character mistake.
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Plot hole: Kirk knows that Lazarus is insane and that he wants the Enterprise dilithium crystals. Yet he's not restrained in sickbay and is, in fact, given free run of the ship so that he can knock out the crew in engineering and steal the crystals. Other than to further a woefully weak plotline, this makes no sense whatsoever.
Add timeJean G
Plot hole: The ambassador and his aide beam down to the planet. This would not be possible because earlier on Scotty refused to lower the screens/shields until the Captain told him to do so. It had already been established in an earlier episode titled "Arena" that transporters don't work with screens up.
Plot hole: It is stated during the episode that Khan was, at one time, the ruler of over 1/4th the Earth's population, during a very key moment in the planet's history (The "Eugenics" Wars). Such a personage undoubtedly would be very well known to 23rd century Earth people, at a level of infamy approximating Julius Caeser or Adolf Hitler. Yet it is only 2/3rds the way through the episode, thanks to a computer search by Spock, that the crew divines his identity. Lt. McGivers at the very least should have almost instantly recognized him.
New this month Plot hole: When Captain Kirk is the last person unaffected by the spores, he's on the bridge lamenting the fact that he is trapped in orbit above the planet since he can't pilot the ship alone. He also can't call for help because Lt. Uhura sabotaged long range communications. but Captain Kirk has somehow forgotten about the shuttle craft. He could have easily escaped on one of those.
Plot hole: Because of the magnetic ore on the work clothes of the man who beamed up, the transporter made duplicates of everything put through it, and so couldn't be used. This was further complicated by the control and power circuits being blasted by the "evil" Kirk. However, the ship carries a number of shuttle craft, which no-one mentions.
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Plot hole: Apparently there is some confusion over the distance between Earth, Starbase 11, and Talos IV. When Spock first meets Pike on Starbase 11 he tells Pike Talos IV is only six days away. Yet when Pike (in the recording) speaks to the Talosians for the first time, he says he is from a star system on the other side of the galaxy. If Talos IV was on one side of the galaxy and Earth was on the other side, it would take hundreds of years at maximum warp to travel from one planet to the other.