Revealing mistake: As Kirk and Lenore leave the cocktail party to walk around outside, they stop to talk. From Kirk's perspective, he is to the left of Lenore, enough to see what should be in view ahead of him. Only seconds later when she leans in to kiss him does he notice Dr. Leighton lying next to some rocks. She was not obscuring his view before. Why didn't Kirk see this while they first started talking? (00:10:36)
Revealing mistake: After Rodriguez and Angela run from the strafing plane, they end up stopping next to a tree. Angela falls to the ground without Rodriguez knowing that she was hit by the gunfire. He continues to watch the plane disappear with his head looking upwards. When his head comes back down, rather than looking towards her to talk (where her face would be if she was standing), his eyes immediately look down at her on the ground...as if he'd been expecting that she'd be lying there all along. (00:34:01)
Other mistake: The only way to beam up to the ship is to repeat the chess counter move after ASKING to be beamed aboard. After the two Captain Kirks fight ends with Spock stunning Garth with the phaser, Spock contacts the Enterprise. After saying "Spock to Enterprise, and hearing Scotty say back to him "Scott here", Scotty says" Queen to Queen's level 3" without Spock requesting to be beamed aboard or even waiting to see what Spock wanted in the first place. (00:46:56)
Visible crew/equipment: After McCoy examines Charlie and they talk about how Charlie learned to talk by just listening to the ship's tapes, when Charlie stands up the two actors' marks can be seen on the floor - the short one for Charlie and the longer one for McCoy, where they both will stand momentarily. (00:04:56)
Deliberate mistake: Special effects of the ship in space were very expensive in the 60s and couldn't be wasted. So when a larger model was built with slightly different nacelles, shots of both versions became common, even within the same episode. This is why the Enterprise sometimes had red needle-tipped nacelles and sometimes lighted "spinning" ones, and in aft views she had either round white spheres or perforated vents at the nacelles' ends.
Plot hole: Pike says he doesn't want women on his bridge, Number One being the one and only exception, and he keeps ordering Colt off it. His apology to Number One indicates that A) he doesn't think of her as female, and B) she's the only exception to his rule. So how does he overlook the very female crew-woman seated at the science station? (00:06:55)
Factual error: Towards the end of the show the Enterprise is leaving Earth orbit and heading towards the sun. We see the Earth diminish and the moon appear looking exactly as it does from Earth. From this angle we should be seeing the "dark side" of the moon, which looks completely different. (00:40:50)
Revealing mistake: While the interior sets for the shuttle craft provided adequate room for the actors to stand, the mock-up built for exterior shots was undersized, and too short to stand up in by several inches. So when entering or exiting the shuttle, the actors always had to duck.