Factual error: Towards the end of the show the Enterprise is leaving Earth orbit and heading towards the sun. We see the Earth diminish and the moon appear looking exactly as it does from Earth. From this angle we should be seeing the "dark side" of the moon, which looks completely different. (00:40:50)
Factual error: In the opening scene on the bridge, when Spock states the planet's properties, the circumference is given in US miles; the mass is given in metric tons; the density is given in metric grams per cubic centimeter; and the atmosphere is given as oxygen/nitrogen. No scientist of Spock’s standing would mix US and metric unit systems. The atmosphere composition should also be stated reversed as “nitrogen/oxygen” with the most abundant gas first. (00:42:00 - 00:59:00)
Factual error: Edith Keeler says to McCoy, "My young man is taking me to see a Clark Gable movie." In 1930, Clark Gable was an uncredited bit player who had last made a film in 1926 - Edith, a New York charity worker, would not even have encountered his name.
Factual error: When they are searching for Finney hidden somewhere in the ship, all ship noises are deadened, and the heartbeats of those on the bridge are muffled by McCoy. In order to locate Finney's heartbeat the ship's auditory sensors are magnified by "one to the fourth power". That's 1x1x1x1 = 1, ie no magnification.
Factual error: The Enterprise accidentally travels a short distance outside the galaxy and can't find its way back. But they'd have to travel for months to get so far outside the Milky Way that they couldn't, well, just turn around in the void and see it. Our galaxy is huge. 100,000 light years across. Very huge. And that barrier may surround the galaxy, but even it is big, pink and visible.
Factual error: When Kirk is given the medicine badge, it's a stretchy elastic/Spandex headband. This is supposedly a completely pre-industrial culture paralleling the early Native American tribes. They have no fabric, no yarn, no spinning wheels - only hides and animal hair, neither of which can stretch a la Spandex. (00:14:40)
Factual error: If Miri's planet is a "duplicate" (meaning identical) Earth, it should have clouds. It doesn't. This remains a mistake because "duplicate" means "exactly the same," and thus the clouds should be there. The special effects crew forgot to put them in. Noteworthy: the very first thing fixed in the digitally enhanced version of this episode was the duplicate Earth. It has clouds now. (00:01:30)
Factual error: When Kirk/Spock enter/leave the Council Chamber, the doors quietly open unaided (as though there were motion detectors in operation), yet the Organian culture - determined by Spock to be approximately Class D minus on Richter Scale of Cultures - would not have had such technology. A fact overlooked by Kirk and more importantly, Spock.
Factual error: As Kirk, McKoy and Scottie age during the episode, their hair goes from brown to fully grey. Mr. Spock shows this to a lesser extent, but by the end of the episode, he has full streaks of grey. This isn't how grey hair works. It starts from the root and works it way outward over time to the end of the strand. Unless their hair is growing quite rapidly, and then cut to keep it short, they shouldn't have full heads of grey hair.
Factual error: Kirk, McCoy, and Spock are chained to the dungeon wall, with McCoy noticing he is next to a skeleton, also chained. This is incorrect, as a skeleton's bones are held together by cartilage, which would rot over time. Therefore, the skeleton would not be hanging intact, but would be a pile of bones on the floor.
Factual error: Spock plays a piece on a harpsichord that he says is by Brahms, but Brahms was a late romantic composer and the piece is a simple baroque dance piece. Also by the time of Brahms the harpsichord was already obsolete, a composition like this wouldn't be sitting on a harpsichord.