Factual error: Towards the end of the show the Enterprise is leaving Earth orbit and heading towards the sun. We see the Earth diminish and the moon appear looking exactly as it does from Earth. From this angle we should be seeing the "dark side" of the moon, which looks completely different.
Factual error: When they are searching for Finney hidden somewhere in the ship, all ship noises are deadened, and the heartbeats of those on the bridge are muffled by McCoy. In order to locate Finney's heartbeat the ship's auditory sensors are magnified by "one to the fourth power". That's 1x1x1x1 = 1, ie no magnification.
Factual error: Edith Keeler says to McCoy, "My young man is taking me to see a Clark Gable movie." In 1930, Clark Gable was an uncredited bit player who had last made a film in 1926 - Edith, a New York charity worker, would not even have encountered his name.
Factual error: When the Enterprise is slingshotting its way back to the "present" it uses the computer to deposit the two men at different times, The Enterprise is traveling backwards in time, so will logically meet the time when the guard was beamed up first, not after Christopher is returned to his cockpit. So the order is wrong. Should be guard then Christopher, not Christopher then guard.
Factual error: In the opening scene on the bridge, when Spock states the planet's properties, the circumference is given in US miles; the mass is given in metric tons; the density is given in metric grams per cubic centimeter; and the atmosphere is given as oxygen/nitrogen. No scientist of Spock’s standing would mix US and metric unit systems. The atmosphere composition should also be stated reversed as “nitrogen/oxygen” with the most abundant gas first.
Factual error: If Miri's planet is a "duplicate" (meaning identical) Earth, it should have clouds. It doesn't. This remains a mistake because "duplicate" means "exactly the same," and thus the clouds should be there. The special effects crew forgot to put them in. Noteworthy: the very first thing fixed in the digitally enhanced version of this episode was the duplicate Earth. It has clouds now.
Factual error: When Kirk/Spock enter/leave the Council Chamber, the doors quietly open unaided (as though there were motion detectors in operation), yet the Organian culture - determined by Spock to be approximately Class D minus on Richter Scale of Cultures - would not have had such technology. A fact overlooked by Kirk and more importantly, Spock.