Factual error: In the opening scene on the bridge, when Spock states the planet's properties, the circumference is given in US miles; the mass is given in metric tons; the density is given in metric grams per cubic centimeter; and the atmosphere is given as oxygen/nitrogen. No scientist of Spock’s standing would mix US and metric unit systems. The atmosphere composition should also be stated reversed as “nitrogen/oxygen” with the most abundant gas first.
Factual error: If Miri's planet is a "duplicate" (meaning identical) Earth, it should have clouds. It doesn't. This remains a mistake because "duplicate" means "exactly the same," and thus the clouds should be there. The special effects crew forgot to put them in. Noteworthy: the very first thing fixed in the digitally enhanced version of this episode was the duplicate Earth. It has clouds now.
Other mistake: In the opening, the planet looks to be turning the same as Earth does. On the viewer it is turning correctly. However, it is too quickly to be accurate, assuming it is a copy of Earth. If so, at this higher speed, the days would be shorter. Also, the ship should be moving at such a speed as to see the planet moving in the opposite direction.
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Character mistake: Spock tells Kirk that without being able to test their vaccine with the ship's computers, "it could be a beaker of death." The vessel that the vaccine is contained in is a flask, not a beaker. The ship's science officer should know the difference.