Continuity mistake: At the hearing in the final scene, there are two bits of debris of some sort (small, black and roundish) littering the floor at the bottom left of the screen. Whatever it was disappears when Scott, Spock, Kirk and McCoy get up to leave the room.
Continuity mistake: When the landing party beams over at the beginning, the transporting officer is wearing a blue jumpsuit, but when they go to the closeup of his hands, they have a red uniform, two braid stripes, and are the standard shot they use when Scotty does the transporting.
Plot hole: It is stated during the episode that Khan was, at one time, the ruler of over 1/4th the Earth's population, during a very key moment in the planet's history (The "Eugenics" Wars). Such a personage undoubtedly would be very well known to 23rd century Earth people, at a level of infamy approximating Julius Caeser or Adolf Hitler. Yet it is only 2/3rds the way through the episode, thanks to a computer search by Spock, that the crew divines his identity. Lt. McGivers at the very least should have almost instantly recognized him.