Revealing mistake: When Walter Donovan is dying after drinking from the wrong cup, watch the over-the-shoulder shot where we see his hair grow long suddenly - for some reason, this shot was filmed in reverse, as the fire coming from the candles/torches behind Elsa is not burning upwards, but appears to be "sucking" back downwards.TedStixon
Other mistake: When Indy is atop the tank with his father, he is facing his father. Suddenly, they show a close-up of Indy's face, head-on, with the Nazi leader behind him swinging a shovel towards Indy's head in the background. Indy gasps, and ducks. How did Indy see the shovel being swung at his head if it was completely behind him?"
Factual error: In the 'The Last Crusade', the Germans and their lackeys use MP 38 or MP 40 submachine guns extensively. The MP 38 was still a new weapon in 1938, and not around in such large numbers to arm each and every soldier with it (total of 1 million MP38/40's vs. more than 20 million troopers in WW2).