Trivia: When Indiana Jones is confronted with the two swordsmen and goes to draw his gun to repeat his easy kill from the first Indy movie, listen to the music. It's the same music that was played in Raiders of the Lost Ark in the marketplace shortly before he pulled his gun on the big twirling swordsman.
Trivia: According to the (excellent) novelization of the movie, when Indy is under the Thuggee spell, he believes that there is a black snake coiled in his chest. When he is given an order by Mola Ram, if he tries to resist, the snake squeezes his heart until he complies with the order.
Trivia: Something a lot of people don't necessarily pick up on. Temple of Doom is actually set before "Raiders".
Trivia: When the first sacrifice victim is being lowered into the lava pit, he is chanting "Om Nam Shiva" over and over. This translates very roughly as "Universe, Earth, Shiva," though the words themselves refer to complex concepts. This is a mantra from a Hindu practice called Shiva Yoga. Shiva Yoga also involves the use of Lingham stones, like the ones Indy is after in the movie.