After the trilithium missile hits the sun, it is shown going out in real time from Veridian III. As the planet is relatively earth-like, it is several light-minutes away from the sun. The filmmakers wanted it to be obvious that the missile was successful, so they ignored the speed of light.
Tim Russ, who plays Tuvok in Voyager, has a small role in this movie as the Tactical Officer on Enterprise-B. In the credits he is cast as "Lieutenant".