Continuity mistake: When the heros reach Yavin (the Rebel Base) there is a shot of them getting off a cart. Han's holster is on the wrong leg, and Artoo's small lens is on the wrong side. The film was obviously flipped to keep the visual flow of the scenes.
Continuity mistake: Near the end of the Vader/Obi-Wan duel, Luke and Co. run up to the Millennium Falcon. Luke says something along the lines of "Ben?" and it cuts to a shot from roughly behind Luke that shows Vader and Obi-Wan. Look closely: Obi-Wan already has his lightsaber straight up and Vader is going in for the kill. It then cuts to a shot of Obi-Wan glancing over at Luke. Obi-Wan then proceeds to raise his lightsaber (again) for the famous Jedi-disappearing trick as Vader slashes at him (again).
Continuity mistake: When Luke and Leia are stopped in front of the pit, one stormtrooper arrives at the other side and shoots at them. Two others arrive later but in the following shot, there's only two stormtroopers, not three. One has disappeared and there's one dead on the floor that we have never seen dying. After that, the dead one disappears and two stormtroopers arrive again - it's the same shot as the beginning, only from another angle. Then, there's one that gets shot and falls in the pit and the dead stormtrooper reappears on the ground.
Continuity mistake: Sometimes during the scene in the trash compactor, Leia's sleeves move up and down her arms between consecutive shots. This is best seen in the widescreen version.
Deliberate mistake: After the Tusken Raider has attacked Luke, he raises his stick over his head and shouts. The movement of his clothing is extremely unnatural. During the editing, they put the same footage forward, then backward many times, to add emphasis to his movements, but it looks decidedly odd. (00:29:02)
Continuity mistake: In the scenes in the conference room in the Death Star, the black hemisphere on the conference table changes position between shots.
Revealing mistake: At the start of the Vader vs. Ben lightsaber battle, when Ben turns his on, a cord can be seen that runs up Ben's sleeve.
Continuity mistake: When the Jawas arrive to sell the droids, Luke walks over to R5-D4 (the "R2 unit with a bad motivator"), and the droid is standing in front of R2-D2 on Artoo's left. In the next shot, the two droids are standing perfectly next to each other, and there are several Jawas around them that weren't there in the previous shot.