Corrected entry: After Bilbo frees himself from the spider's silken cocoon in the forest of Mirkwood, he hides behind a tree listening to the clicks of the spiders "talk" to each other as they wrap up the dwarfs - i.e., he doesn't understand what they're saying. When Bilbo puts on the ring, all of a sudden he can understand the language of the spiders. He attacks one of them, invisible, and he can hear it ask, "Where is it?" Bilbo takes off the ring and says "Here." Then he kills the spider, with the ring off, but he can still understand the spider crying "It stings!" And Bilbo says "Sting. It's a good name." Without the ring on his finger, it doesn't seem like he should understand the spider's language.
Corrected entry: In the shot where Bilbo and the dwarves are climbing up to the hidden passage outside the mountain, Gloin is seen holding the axe that was taken by the wood elves, which is the axe he will later give to his son Gimli (will assume they return it after the battle of 5 armies). The next time we see it he is beating on the wall and breaking his axe from Laketown.