Plot hole: Through this film (and its predecessor) it is established that the creature imitates its victims perfectly, having all of their knowledge and memory. At the end, when the female lead tells the male lead she knew he was human because of his earring, he reaches for the wrong ear, confirming he is The Thing. Even if The Thing couldn't reproduce the earring, it would have known which ear it was supposed to be in.
Factual error: Winter in Antarctica would not have a night and day as portrayed, with the amount of light changing so much during the course of 24 hours.
Continuity mistake: In the 1982 movie, the alien ship is uncovered by the Norwegian scientists using thermite. (As seen on the films discovered by the Americans.) In the 2011 movie, it is uncovered when the Thing gets back into the ship and starts up the engines.
Factual error: The very first time we see Kate, when she is examining the extracted specimen, she is listening to music on molded plastic headphones that were not available in 1982. Smaller headphones such as these, designed at the time for listening to Walkman-like portable equipment would have had a metal band going over the head, holding the earpieces in place.
Factual error: When they decide to disable the snow vehicles in order to keep anybody from leaving the base, they decide to disable the engines by cutting the spark plug wires with mechanics sheers. The only problem is that the engines in the snow vehicles (you can hear this to be true) are diesel engines - and diesel engines do not have spark plugs at all. The plugs in the movie were for gasoline engines.
Deliberate mistake: Right at the end of the film, the two Norwegians (Lars and Matias) are seen chasing after Lars' dog in a helicopter. Notice how their clothing and the interior of the helicopter are not the same as they looked in the original 1982 film by John Carpenter. It's supposed to be the same event.