Continuity mistake: At the start, when Floyd and Andy walk into the barbershop, in the exterior shot Floyd's white barber jacket is on a hanger hanging from the coat tree that has a finial at the top of its pole, but in the next interior shot that jacket is hanging directly on the coat tree's hook, the hanger has vanished, and that finial has disappeared as well.
Visible crew/equipment: After Andy and Barney walk out of Floyd's shop, when Andy makes a crack about Barney's ears being uneven Andy walks offscreen, then Barney shouts at him as Andy's presumably already down the block, but in their reflection in the window behind them we can see that as soon as Andy walks offscreen in this closeup, he actually stops and leans over where we see the camera's located.
Revealing mistake: At the end, in the shots of the kids dancing in class, the width of the wall between the shelf/coat hooks and the perpendicular wall with the door has bizarrely increased by 1-2 feet, but that extra width is gone in previous and following shots. Presumably they needed extra space for all the kids to dance so they moved that left wall.
Continuity mistake: While Barney's trying to instruct the new deputy candidates, when he throws a tomato to Otis it splatters on his shirt, and a few things keep changing depending on the angle of the shot - the amount of tomato goo increases/changes position; the suspender's sliding adjuster changes height; the deputy badge changes position.
Revealing mistake: When Clara and Aunt Bee are talking in the kitchen, in the closeups facing Aunt Bee we see the counter, the cabinet, and the wall, but what we don't see are the curtains, the window, or the windowsill, which all should be on that wall. The fake window wasn't placed on the set wall for Bee's closeup.
Continuity mistake: While Aunt Bee and the party guests are gathered in the parlor, when Gomer hoots like an owl in the shot facing him note Floyd's eyeglasses - black with thick straight temples, but in the shot from behind Gomer and all following shots Floyd's wearing different eyeglasses - lighter color with curved tips.
Revealing mistake: After Andy and Opie choose between chicken and pot roast using a nickle, when Opie gives the nickle back to Andy the window over the sink is missing - the fake window wasn't put up on the set wall for this shot, but when the food burns the window and curtains are up there as usual.
Visible crew/equipment: While waiting for Barney to show up at the surprise party, Opie looks out the window and spots Barney, then when Aunt Bee and Thelma Lou take their places we can see both actors' marks on the floor - the chalk T-mark and the curved chalk mark.