Visible crew/equipment: The action is shifting back and forth from the bridge where the alien ship is attacking and sickbay where McCoy is operating on Sarek. In two separate takes when the scene shifts to sickbay McCoy is standing at the operating table. I noticed a wisp of smoke rising from McCoy's right side (left side of screen). It appears to be from a cigarette in an ash tray below camera level either beside McCoy or near the head of Spock's bed.
Continuity mistake: The bundle of clothes Kirk steals from the balcony changes several times while he and Spock face the policeman. The red shirt is not visible, then is hanging down on the right, then isn't. It then disappears from view until they reach Edith's basement, where Kirk puts it on. Two belts, two jackets and Spock's cap also seem to have added themselves to the bundle somehow. They're not there when Kirk first dismantles the tangle of clothes in the basement.
Plot hole: Apparently there is some confusion over the distance between Earth, Starbase 11, and Talos IV. When Spock first meets Pike on Starbase 11 he tells Pike Talos IV is only six days away. Yet when Pike (in the recording) speaks to the Talosians for the first time, he says he is from a star system on the other side of the galaxy. If Talos IV was on one side of the galaxy and Earth was on the other side, it would take hundreds of years at maximum warp to travel from one planet to the other.
Character mistake: Spock tells Kirk that without being able to test their vaccine with the ship's computers, "it could be a beaker of death." The vessel that the vaccine is contained in is a flask, not a beaker. The ship's science officer should know the difference.
Revealing mistake: When McCoy is examining Charlie in sickbay, several shots of the diagnostic panel show a clear reflection of Charlie's upright profile. But Charlie isn't sitting up during the exam - he's lying flat on the table. The close-ups of the panel were shot while actor Robert Walker Jr. was either sitting or standing nearby.
Other mistake: Spock is wearing his normal blue uniform when shot with the "happy spores" from the strange plant. The next scene is with Kirk inquiring about Spock's location to which he is told nobody has seen him. Spock somehow manages to find some green overalls out in the meadows when we switch back to him.
Plot hole: The ambassador and his aide beam down to the planet. This would not be possible because earlier on Scotty refused to lower the screens/shields until the Captain told him to do so. It had already been established in an earlier episode titled "Arena" that transporters don't work with screens up.