Continuity mistake: In the scene right before the shuttle's crew finds the Romulan ship and the Enterprise, Geordi calls the shuttle craft's cockpit to explain the temporal disturbances. Captain Picard, Troi and Data walk into the shuttle's cockpit room and Troi puts her right arm on Geordi's chair. As Geordi, Data and Captain Picard are talking you can see Troi's wrist hanging off the chair, but when the camera cuts directly in front of Geordi her whole wrist is on the chair. The camera then cuts back and you can see that Troi's wrist is still hanging off the chair.
Other mistake: When Q the Judge enters on his throne, at one point, the hydraulic arm the throne is on is visible, despite being black to blend in. Conversely, in "All Good Things...", the final episode, the arm is missing having been matted out by CGI techniques.
Factual error: Shelby announces the Borg have entered Sector 001, and we get an exterior shot of the Borg ship flying past Saturn. The problem is that the Borg are approaching from the side of the planet illuminated by the sun, meaning they would actually be moving AWAY from Earth rather than toward it.
Continuity mistake: When Data and Troi are scanning the list of elements, searching for something to cause an explosion, the list is scrolling "up" the screen. When she tells Data to stop and go back, he does, but the list continues to scroll "up" instead of back "down".
Continuity mistake: In the scene where Data is brushing Timothy's hair into a copy of his own hairstyle, he stops, kneels down and asks Timothy "Timothy, are you having bad dreams?" In this shot there is a big tuft of hair on the right side of Timothy's head that sticks straight out. When their conversation is over and Data stands up in the wider shot, all of Timothy's hair is in place.
Visible crew/equipment: In the opening scene when Data is portraying a character from Shakespeare's play "The Tempest" a small card can be seen attached to the back of the book he is carrying (likely containing his lines), but after increasing the amount of torch light the card is no longer there.
Character mistake: In his exchange with Admiral McCoy, Data uses several contractions (i.e., shouldn't, I'm). For the rest of the series he doesn't, and in S3: Ep16, "The Offspring", he admits that his programming makes him incapable of using contractions. And in S4: Ep8, "Future Imperfect" Riker questions Data on when he started using contractions, knowing that Data is incapable of it.
Plot hole: Apparently when it came to taking the ship into the asteroid, the entire bridge crew conveniently forgot that Galaxy class federation starships can separate. The obviously prudent course of action would be to separate the ship and send the star drive section (the narrower section) into the asteroid while the saucer section (the wider section) stood guard outside. The only reason this wasn't done was to provide drama for the rest of the episode when the Romulans collapsed the entrance to the chasm.